Warfarin, an oral anticoagulant, hinders the normal clotting effects of vitamin K. Discovered in 1942 at the University of Wisconsin, warfarin decreases the action of clotting factors to a level that is medically beneficial. By blocking vitamin K, warfarin slows the clotting mechanism, a desirable effect to treat or prevent …

Technological advances have multiplied the flooring options for basketball. Previous generation of players competed indoors on wood, tile or tartan surfaces and outdoors on either concrete or asphalt, but new synthetic surfaces and sports court technologies have created a whole new range of choices. Players have myriad selections of sneakers …

Getting buff means increasing your amount of lean muscle mass. Resistance exercise incorporates movements that strengthen and tone the muscles. Young adults can build larger muscles through weightlifting routines and other types of resistance exercise, although very young teenagers should wait until after they enter puberty to begin lifting weights …

M¨¦ni¨¨re’s disease is an inner ear condition discovered by French physician Prosper M¨¦ni¨¨re. This disease may cause pressure or ringing in the ear and attacks lasting several hours can occur. These attacks also bring on dizziness, nausea and other symptoms associated with vertigo. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises may reduce symptoms by …

Every time you walk, run or stand, you’re putting stress on your knee joints, and soccer players put more stress on their knees than non-athletes. The supporting elements of the knee joint are composed almost exclusively of soft tissues, such as tendons, ligaments, cartilage and small muscles that are prone …

Soccer referees use yellow cards to communicate an official caution to a player, substitute or substituted player. Unlike a verbal warning, a yellow card can have more drastic and long-lasting effects. A referee might show a player a yellow card for a number of different reasons. A referee will show …

The Snellen eye test, designed by Hermann Snellen in the 1860s, is one of the most familiar sights at any eye doctor’s office. Comprising 11 rows of letters or symbols that become progressively smaller, the Snellen eye test measures visual acuity, which measures both sharpness of vision and the ability …